An anal fissure is a small tear in the anal canal. Fissures are common, but are often confused with other anal conditions, such as hemorrhoids (piles).
Fissures are usually caused by trauma to the anus from a bowel movement or other stretching of the anal canal. This can be due to a hard, dry bowel movement. Less common causes of fissures include inflammatory bowel disease, anal infections, or tumors.
Anal fissures typically cause a sharp pain that starts with the passage of stool. This pain may last several minutes to a few hours. In addition to this patient may have bright red fresh blood in stools and a small lump or skin tag near the fissure.
Your physician will discuss the benefits and side effects of treatments.
A high-fiber to make stools soft, formed, and bulky.
Stool softeners to make stools easier to pass.
Drinking more water
Warm tub baths for 10 to 20 minutes.
Medicines (Cream and Tablets) to heal the fissure. These should be prescribed by a relevant physician.
Although most anal fissures do not require surgery, chronic fissures are harder to treat and surgery may be the best option. The goal of surgery is to help the anal sphincter muscle relax which reduces pain and spasms, allowing the fissure to heal. Surgical options include an injection into the anal sphincter or surgical division of an inner part of the anal sphincter. Your colon and rectal surgeon will find the best treatment for you and discuss the risks of surgery. Both types of surgery are typically done as same-day outpatient procedures.
Complete healing after both medical and surgical treatments can take 6 to 10 weeks. Even when the pain and bleeding lessen, it is important to maintain good bowel habits and eat a high-fiber diet.